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GPS technology measures medium applied foreground to discuss in highway
From;    Author:Stand originally


  [summary]GPS technology application measures revolution of a be survey of the industry outside highway great skill at highway, the perspective of its application and development is very wide. Especially real time is dynamic (technology of RTK) fixed position is measured in highway in accumulate containing tremendous technical potential, the article basically introduced the RTK technology in GPS to measure medium application to reach its to be opposite in highway of highway survey tremendous press action.  
[keyword]GPS; RTK; Static fixed position; Dynamic fixed position


1GPS technology develops current situation 
The satellitic navigation system that GPS(GlobalPositioningSystem) of global location system is development of combination of empty three armed services of American land sea, have navigation of sex of global, round-the-clock Hou, successional, real time fixed position and time function, can provide accurate three-dimensional coordinate, speed and time for of all kinds user. Fixed position of only place navigation and two respects that the relative fixed position that measure the land is GPS application; To convention is measured and character measures the ground to locate relatively is main applied way. 
The relative fixed position that measure the land is to use L1 and L2 carrier wave high accuracy of phasic observation implementation is measured, its principle is to use carrier wave phasic measure bureau region calculus of finite differences: Difference is begged between receiver, difference is begged 2 times between receiver and satellitic observation epoch, solve cipher out to wait for the length that decides base line through needing minute of consideration twice; Begging weeks of solution is complete blur is its key technology, according to algorithmic model, designed the exercise pattern such as static state, swift static state and RTK. Static exercise mode basically is used at earth of diastrophism observation, country to measure, large dams is out of shape the high accuracy such as observation is measured; Swift static state is measured with its efficient exercise efficiency and centimeter class precision applies extensively at average project to measure; And RTK is measured with its fast real time, centimeter the characteristic such as class precision applies extensively at data to collect (if broken ministry is measured) with project lofting in. RTK technology is representing GPS to measure the main trend that ground fixed position uses relatively. 
GPS measures the land model receiving facility is the postulate that realizes the fixed position that measure the land, receiver has the branch of Chan Pin and Shuang Pin, double frequency function amends ionosphere to refract an influence with L2 observation, optimum at medium, long base line (be more than 20km) to measure, have the function that swift static state measures, can upgrade for RTK function; Odd frequency machine is measured at be less than the short base line of 20km aptly, measure measure to have favorable performance/price ratio to average project. RTK system receives hand of equipment of equipment, radio news report, electron by GPS thin reach composition of equipment of form a complete set, equipment of a complete set of is in light quantify, the operation is handy dependability of gender, real time, centimeter the characteristic of the respect such as class precision, completely OK and contented data collects the requirement with project lofting. Count in course satellite in view of GPS system finite, in inspect the condition that accepts keep out to fall to be being connected for nothing, unwarrantable normal solution calculates, affect the precision of fixed position and reliability. Practice makes clear, because system of Chan Pin GPS is much of the environment restrict, put in the limitation with very big move. The system of global navigation satellite as Russia (of CLONASS) ceaseless and perfect, the double constellation system that uses GLONASS to improve GPS performance (GLONASS GPS) already developed a success by American Ashtech company, the system of this kind of round-the-clock, whole region, high accuracy offerred more perfect reception for the user equipment, the receives equipment GPS to receive facility new standard of double constellation system.  
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