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GLONASS system brief introduction
From;    Author:Stand originally
GLONASS system brief introduction

GLONASS is system of satellite of navigation of whole world of GLObal NAvigation Satellite System() word head abbreviate, be before Russia locates from the as similar as photograph of American GPS system satellite that construction begins at the beginning of 80 time system, also stand by the control of satellitic constellation, ground that monitor and 3 parts comprise user facilities. Manage by Russia space bureau now.
The satellitic constellation of GLONASS system is comprised by 24 satellites, distributing to go up in the orbit plane of 3 intimate circles equably, every orbit face 8 satellites, orbit height 19100 kilometers, cycle of run, orbit is obliquitous 64.8 ° .
What differ with GPS system of the United States is GLONASS system use frequency to divide site (FDMA) means, will distinguish according to carrier wave frequency different satellite (GPS is the location that pile up cent (CDMA) , according to modulation the code distinguishs satellite) . Every GLONASS satellite sends the frequency of two kinds of sowed carrier wave to be L1=1 respectively, 602 0.5625k(MHz) and L2=1, 246 0.4375k(MHz) , among them K=1 ~ the 24 frequency number that are every satellite. The frequency of the carrier wave of all GPS satellite is identical, all be L1=1575.42MHz and L2=1227.6MHz.
On the carrier wave of GLONASS satellite also modulation code of noise of two kinds of pseudo-random: S code and P are piled up. Russia used the army and the people to GLONASS system operable, do not impose secret open policy.
GLONASS system sheet nods way of standard of fixed position precision to be 16m, perpendicular direction is 25m.
GLONASS satellite by proton date one arrow SamSung fires carrier rocket course, the satellite uses 3 axes to stabilize system, rectify quantity quality 1400kg, design orbit life 5 years. All GLONASS satellite all uses accurate cesium bell to regard its as frequency fiducial. Satellite of the first GLONASS enters the space at blasting off on October 12, 1982. So far, launched satellites of 80 Yu Ke GLONASS in all, recently is to launched 3 satellites on October 13, 2000. End there still is 10 GLONASS satellite to moving till January 10, 2001.
To increase the fixed position capacity of Glonass system further, develop broad civil market, russian government plan uses 4 years of time to be its newlier Glonass-M system. Content has: Improve establishment of tracking telemetry and command station of a few grounds; Lengthen a satellite arrive 8 years in course life; Realize the fixed position precision with expensive system: Positional precision raises 10 ~ 15m, time precision raises 20 ~ 30ns, speed precision achieves 0.01m / S.
Additional, russia plans to deliver the system the frequency that sows frequency instead GPS, get the technology of Er company assists beautiful Luo Kewei.
The main use of GLONASS system is navigation fixed position, tie unified appearance with GPS of course, the measurement that OK also and extensive at all sorts of grade and sort applying application of the frequency when application, GIS application is mixed.
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